Second Udasi of Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Guru Nanak Dev Ji accompanied by Mardana Ji in Northern India
The Second Udasi or Dooji Udasi refers to the Journey of Guru Nanak Dev Ji towards to the south for the sacred mission to spread the holy message of peace and compassion to all of mankind. Udasi is a word which takes its meaning from the word udas (meaning to take leave, go away or depart). Additionally, the word can refer to sadness or dejection and is also used to refer to an order of holy persons who have renounced worldly ways. In his second Udasi it appeared that Guru Nanak Sahib had taken the path that Hindu men had traditionally taken in adulthood after marrying, having a son who after marriage an becoming the head of the household, would free their father to retire to the forests in search of communion with God. But Guru Nanak only appeared to take the traditional path of renouncing worldly ways (the world of Maya or illusion), as he took the attire of a Udasi. Guru Nanak, however, sat out to reform the way that religion had long been practised in India. His teachings were aimed at setting the world on a new path, pointing out the shortcomings of ritualistic behaviour; teaching men that God was much more than the worship of idols.
==The Timeline of this udasi was between 1506 – 1513.
In this Udasi Guru Ji met many known personalities and visited many known places and preach to not to follow known useless rituals. Guru Ji met Jains, Hindus, Shaivites, Vaishnav, Krishna Bhagats, Muslims etc. Guru Ji collected Hymns of Bhagat Namdev and Bhagat Pipa during this tour. Guru Ji went to Sri Lanka and met Raja Shivnabh, Kauda Bheel at Vijaywada. Guru Ji also preached Dakhni Oankar a famous bani during this travel.
Worship of Shiv’s idol was very common in southern India at that time. There were twelve Shivling temples and six of them were situated in the south. Southern India was also ridden with caste system. Guru Nanak had to visit all such places to show the people the path of Eternal Truth i.e. the worship of Almighty, the Formless.
There is some discussion amoung Sikh scholars whether the first and second udasis were infact just one continuous journey. It is stated by some that: “If the Guru had returned from Puri on the first Udasi, he must have visited some important places on his way back, but there is no mention of it in the Janamsakhi. However, the Meharban version of the Janamsakhi treats the eastern and the southern journeys as a single Udasi. Others argue that the geographical location of Puri is as such that a visitor planning to visit south India, would not return to Punjab and then start for the southern journey. Many writers therefore, believe that the Guru continued his southward journey from Puri.”
During Second Travels Guru ji went following places:
Andhra Pradesh: Vijaywada, Guntur
Tamil Nadu: Nagapatnam, Kanchipuram, Tiruvannamalai, Tiruchirapally, Trivanmalay, Rameshwaram
Karnataka/Kerala: Cochin, Palghat, Nilgiri Hills, Rangapatan, Bidar
Maharashtra: Nanded, Narsi Bamini, Barsi(Sholapur), Nasik, Poona, Amarnath, Nasik, Aurangabad
Madhya Pradesh: Omkareshwar, Betma(Indore), Burhanpur(Khandwa), Gwarighat, Indaur, Ujjain
Gujrat: Palitana, Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Kutchh, Baroach, Junagarh, Vadodara
Rajasthan: Jabalpur and Chitrakoot and Rikhanpur, Pushkar, Ajmer
Sri Lanka: Matiakalam, Katargama, Batticoloa, Sita Eliya
Famous Events and Discources
Discourse With Jains
Main article: Guru Nanak in Rajasthan
Gurdwara Kolayat Sahib in memory of Guru Nanak visit and discourse with Jain Sadhus
On his journey south, Guru Ji crossed the Vindhyachal ranges and came upon a Jain temple. Its priest, Narbhi, heard about the Guru and came to meet him. He was aware that Guru Sahib Ji did not believe in the exaggerated view of life in every form the way the Jains do. He asked a series of questions : Do you eat old or new corn? Do you drink fresh or boiled water? Do you shake a tree for fruit? Who is your Guru and what power has he to save you? Guru Ji replied:
If the Guru is kind, devotion is perfected.
If the Guru is kind, you know no sorrow. If the Guru is kind, pain disappears. If the Guru is kind, you enjoy life. If the Guru is kind, there is no fear of death. If the Guru is kind, you remain ever happy. If the Guru is kind, the nine treasures are obtained. If the Guru is kind, the truth is gained.
(Majh ki vaar)
The Jain priest heard this and was satisfied.
Discourse With Majhavars
In Ajmer, There was a famous Muslim saint, Khawaza Mai-u-din Chisti, who propagated Islam for about seventy years at Ajmer. It was an annual Muslim gathering to celebrate Khawaza’s day when the Guru reached there. He forbade the Muslims from worshipping the Makbras (the tombs of their saints), but asked them to worship only One God.
Discourse with Kauda Cannibal
Kauda Bheel (also Known as Kauda Rakshish, Kauda Bheel) was once a cannibal, who became a Sikh after an encounter with Guru Nanak that changed his life. Guru Ji, during his Southern journeys, often crossed forests, baren lands and mountains, which resulted in his entering the area of the Bheel people. His now famous encounter with Kauda was (Acc. to Prof. Sahib Singh) near Kudapa, which is today a village about 70 km from Vijayawada in the Andhra Pardesh section of India.
In Gujrat State
GUru ji Stopped Idol worship i.e Shivlingam Worship at this place. Guru ji Visited to Somnath temple. The Somnath Temple located in the Prabhas Kshetra near Veraval in Saurashtra, on the western coast of Gujarat, India is the most sacred of the twelve Jyotirlings (lingas of light) of the God Shiva. Somnath means “The Protector of Moon God”. The Somnath Temple is known as ‘the Shrine Eternal’, as although the temple has been destroyed six times it has been rebuilt every single time
Guru Ji was against idol worship. People used to worship Shivlingam which is against principles of sikh philosphy and guru ji went their to preach the teaching of one god the monotheism and to stop idolatory. For this purpose he preached people to stop idol worship. not to worship Shiva lingam and Shiva lingam is not the way to get god. Many people became sikhs of guru and stopped worshipping lingam.
Krishna was called one of incarnation of Lord Vishnu by Hindus. He born in Brindaban and Died in Dwarka. People engaged in worship of Krishna. His idol was made and was worshiped and people treated him as god. Guru Nanak Sahib preached people that Krishna was just Avtar of Vishnu but not god. OIne should devout in God’s name only rather then worship or walking acdc. to krishna’s way.
Recitation of Bani Dakhni Oankar
Omkareshwar Visited by Guru Nanak Dev during his udasis to south. Here the worship of Shivling (Shiv’s idol) was considered as a worship of God. The people considered Sanskrit as the language of the gods and learning of Sanskrit language was considered as an act of holiness. Guru Nanak’s visit to that temple; and there was discourse between Guru Nanak and the Pundit(Priest) of Omkar Temple and the bani is called Dakhni Oankar. Guru Nanak is talking about the ancient concept being taught by the Pundit: The Idol of Shiva or Linga of Shiva is considered as ‘EAMkwir’ (Omkar) by the Pundit of Omkar Temple. And the Pundit also equates ‘Omkar’ to OM, which represent Trinity of God. Therefore, it is not the philosophy of Guru Nanak
Collection of Bhagat Bani
Guru nanak Sahib visited Bhagat Namdev’s Temple in Maharashtra where he collected rhymes written by Bhagat Namdev. GUru Sahib also visited shirne of Bhagat Pipa where he told people all about Bhagat Pipa and collected his one rhyme. The Bani collected by Guru Sahib is situated in Guru Granth Sahib. Pandharpur. Saint Nam Dev whose Bani is included in Guru Granth Sahib, passed most of his life at this place. From there he reached Barsi which was the native place of Saint Trilochan whose two Sabads are included in Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru To Sangladeep (Ceylon)
Guru Ji went o Sangladweeep or Ceylon or Sri Lanka at Batticoloa was the first place of his stay in the island. He went to Matiakalam (now known as Matalai) which was the capital of Sangladeep under Raja ShivNabh.
Bhai Mansukh, a trader from Punjab and a disciple of the Guru, had been to Sangladeep in connection with his business long before the Guru’s visit to the island. By reason of his trade, Bhai Mansukh had access to Raja Shiv Nabh and thus he had told the Raja all about Guru Nanak. The Raja inquired how he could meet the Guru. Mansukh told him, “Rise early in the morning and recite Moolmantar. If you earnestly pray, the Guru will respond to your prayers.”
Every morning Raja Shiv Nabh meditated and prayed for the holy sight (darshan) of the Guru. Time passed on but the Guru did not appear. Learning of the king’s anxiety to meet his Guru, many a charlatan tried to cheat the king by pretending to be the Guru. Many persons came and claimed to be the Guru but all were found to be the fake claimants. One day news was brought to the Raja that a holy man, with a rare glory beaming on his face (spiritual aura), had arrived in the old neglected garden, and as soon as he set his foot in the garden, the withered trees sprouted into green foliage.
Due to the previous fake claimants, the Raja devised a plan to test the visitors before he could bow his head to any one of them. The Raja, therefore, sent beautiful girls to seduce the new-comer with their beauty and charm. Accordingly, he sent out two most captivating dancing girls to try their charms on the visiting holy man. The moment the girls set eyes on Guru Nanak Dev Ji they forgot all about their designs. They came and sat down in utter devotion. The king meanwhile was waiting impatiently to know what had happened to his girls. When he learned about their submission to the Guru, he rushed to Guru Nanak Dev Ji and fell at his feet. The Guru placed his hand on his head and blessed him. Who could describe the ecstatic joy that had dawned upon Raja.
The whole city rushed to the garden to have holy sight of the Master. A dharamsala, a religious common place, was built where the Guru held daily religious congregations and preached his divine doctrine. People were enlightened with God’s Name and they became Guru’s followers.
After staying there for some time the Guru started in the southerly direction and reached Katargama. Then he reached Sita Eliya, a place where Sita spent her period of captivity. At the time of Guru Nanak’s visit, this place was in the Kotte kingdom of Raja Dharma Prakarma. The inscription discovered by Dr. Karuna Ratna and Parana Vitana in the famous museum of Anurodh Pura, furnishes a brief account of the encounter of Nanak Acharya (Nanak) with the Buddhist Bhikshu, Dharma Kirt-sthavira. This inscription also informs that the Raja Dharma Prkramabahu had promised to embrace Guru Nanak’s creed if he won in the debate. Guru Nanak won. But before he could embrace the Guru’s creed, the Brahmans very cleverly arranged another public debate, this time between the Guru and Dharma Dvajapandita and maneuvered the result in favor of the latter. In this way they did not let the ruler fall under the influence of the Guru.
Main article: Gurdwara Nanak Jhira Sahib,Bidar
The Guru accompanied by his companion Mardana stayed in the outskirts of the Bidar town where ‘Nanak Jhira’ Gurdwara is now located. Nearby were huts of Muslim fakirs, who took keen interest in the sermons and teachings of the great Guru. The news soon spread throughout Bidar and its surrounding areas about the holy Saint of the North and large number of people started coming to him to have his “Darshan” and seek his blessings. There used to be acute shortage of drinking water in Bidar. All efforts of the people to dig wells were of no avail. Even when wells produced water the water was found to be unfit for drinking. The Guru was greatly moved by the miserable condition of the people. With divine name on his lips and the mercy in his heart he touched the hillside with his toe and removed some rubble from the place. To the utter surprise of all, a fountain of sweet, cool water gushed out of the hillside. The place soon came to be known as ‘Nanak-Jhira’.
Guru To Sarsa
From Kurukshetra the Guru passed through Jind where there is Gurdwara in his memory and then reached Sarsa. Here he met a Muslim saint. The Muslim Pir had great influence over his disciples and he had given them the guarantee of securing a place in heaven for them. In return of such a guarantee, the disciples would bring big offerings in cash and kind to the Pir. The Guru explained to them that in order to get salvation, they should worship One God, the mere offerings would lead them no where.
Sultanpur was about 135 miles north east of Sarsa and after eight years and covering more than six thousand miles on foot, the Guru reached Sultanpur. The elder sister, Bibi Nanki and her husband, and other acquaintances were overjoyed to see him back.
After staying sometimes at Sultanpur, the Guru started towards Talwandi. His father was about 75 years old. There was no postal service in those days. The old parents were waiting for their son to return. At last their son reached home and their joy knew no bounds. People from far and near came to have holy sight of the Guru. They started rejoicing his company again. At that time the Guru’s children and his wife were with his in-laws at Pakhokey, a place about 110 miles towards Lahore. So in 1513, he proceeded to return home to see his wife and children.
Ajita was the Chaudhry (chief) of that village. He had heard about the Guru but he had never met him before. Ajita was so much impressed with the first holy sight of the Guru that he immediately became his disciple.